Ciré is a highly glazed wax finish applied to fabric through a process of heat and pressure, known as calendering (remember calamanco?) which is giving a wet or polished look. The name can also refer to the fabric or garment with the resultant finish. The process tends to produce a stiffer, crisper fabric per weight. It is sometimes, particularly in interior decorating, called a French wax finish.
The term dates to the 1910s, when high fashion garments played with contrasts in fabric and textures, and the shiny, wet look of ciré lent an edgy modern twist to combinations of chiffons and brocades and satin.
Ciré literally means waxed, so the first references to it are to waxed flowers. This Worth evening coat features “a collar of ruched velvet, tied with two ribbons held by a roundels of satin and wax flowers”.
Ciré treated fabrics were popular throughout the 20s, particularly as ciré ribbons.
Cire ribbons, Evening Post, 31 January 1922
Auckland Star, 28 October 1930, the hat in the upper right corner (model 3) features ciré lace
Ciré reached its zenith in the 30s, when frocks in ciré taffeta, ciré satin, and even ciré lace (ah, a time when shiny lace was a virtue!).
A bias-cut black ciré satin evening gown, early 1930s, adorned with two large floral rosettes with gold lamé centres embroidered roundels to skirt, and attached belt. Augusta Auctions?
A bias-cut black ciré satin evening gown, early 1930s, adorned with two large floral rosettes with gold lamé centres embroidered roundels to skirt, and attached belt. Augusta
One of the problems I’ve encountered in researching ciré is that few museums note if a fabric has a ciré finish or not, so one has to search to identify garments in ciré, like this Lanvin extravagance of ciré satin:
Cire’s were popular throughout the 1930s, but like many fashions, they fell out of favour or became hard to source during WWII due to wartime restrictions.
c. 1939 Black silk chiffon dress with cire satin collar and rose appliques on the bodice and sleeves, via Past Perfect Vintage
The original ciré fabric were created with a wax finish, but with the introduction of synthetic fabrics after World War II themoplastic fabrics such as nylon and polyester were ciréd without wax, using only heat and pressure.
Despite the ease of treating synthetic fabrics with a shiny, polished finish, the fell out of favour, though ciré cottons returned to fashion in the 1950s, 60s & 70s, often called simply ‘polished cotton.’ It’s still possible to buy ciré fabric today, though it may be called by a variety of names.
Maitra, K. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Clothing and Textiles. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. 2007
O’Hara, Georgina. The Encyclopedia of Fashion: From 1840 to the 1980s. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1986
Shaeffer, Claire. Claire Shaeffer’s Fabric Sewing Guide. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. 2008
Ciré: Merriam-Webster Online
My ‘Smooth Sewing‘ trousers for the HSF ‘Innovations‘ challenge were made of rayon (as is the 1940s aloha shirt I paired them with), so it seems high time that I do a terminology post on rayon and the other ‘semi-synthetic’ or ‘manufactured natural’ fibres.
Rayon is the generic name for a whole family of fabrics made by dissolving cellulose fibres in chemicals and extruding the resulting viscous solution. Different chemicals and variations in the processes yield viscose (called rayon in the US), cuprammonium (cupra or cupro), nitro silk, acetate, modal and lyocell are all types of rayon, as is most ‘bamboo’ fabric – which is simply rayon made from bamboo rather than other cellulose bases. Art silk (or artificial silk), is an older term for rayon.
Pyjamas and lingere in rayon, 1934
The first manufactured natural fibres have their origins in the excited experimentation that characterised the birth of modern chemistry in the mid-19th century (a movement that also resulted in the first synthetic dyes). Scientists discovered that cellulose could be dissolved in various solvents such as acetone and ether, and almost immediately hit upon the idea of creating a silk-like filament fibres from the resulting liquid. In the mid 1850s an otherwise little-known chemist named Georges Audemars created the first artificial silk fibres by dipping needles in cellulose dissolved in a solvent, and drawing the needles out to form a thin fibre. His method was obviously impractical for mass production, and it would take another half a century of tinkering to create a commercially viable manufactured cellulose based fabric.
His method, known as nitrocellulose, did go into production in the 1890s after further developments by Comte Hilaire de Chardonnet (mentioned in NZ papers in 1888) based on filament development for lightbulbs, but the fabric was extremely flammable, had aesthetic issues, and was more expensive to produce than the other two competitors that had since arisen: acetate and cuprammonium. Despite these drawbacks, and despite being popularly dubbed ‘mother-in-law silk‘, nitrocellulose was manufactured throughout the first decade of the 20th century, until the disruptions of WWI ended its production.
By the early 1900s manufactured cellulose fabrics of various varieties were making headlines around the world. Articles raving about it had appeared as early as 1894, and by 1906 they reached a fever pitch with headlines like “The Wonder of Cellulose” and declared “Death of the Silkworm” and “Artificial Silk Can Be Made Cheaper Than Rags.” Viscose was sold in the UK from 1905, in the US from 1910, and in New Zealand from at least 1911.
Ad for Ososilkie (almost certainly a yarn made from rayon) as seen in the Girls Own Paper, 1911
World War I delayed the development of rayon and other cellulose based fabrics. When the war ended in 1918, society embraced new technology of all varieties as hallmarks of a new world which had been washed clean by the horrors of war, and could start fresh. Processed cellulose fabrics was one of these new technologies, and its popularity rose throughout the early 1920s.
Viscose in particular was originally marketed as a silk alternative – or artificial silk, shortened to art silk, to further veil its origins. Proponents raved that it was “so soft and glossy that it will deceive even experts when woven.” Less enthusiastic observers sneered that it was simply “disguised cotton“ and noted “artificial the article certainly is, but silk it is not – any more than celluloid is marble.”
Despite the detractors, by 1925 rayon, with its ability to mimic both cotton and silk, combined with a significantly cheaper price tag, especially compared to silk, was being manufactured in large quantities in the UK, Germany and the US, and to smaller extents in Italy, Japan and other countries. Production of rayon in the UK almost quadrupled from 1924 to 1926. Silk remained pre-eminent for those who could afford it, but art silk was an attractive alternative to those on a budget. Art silk was manufactured as yarns for embroidery and knitting, as a flat fabric, as a crepe fabric, and as a velvet, among other types of fabric.
1930s evening jacket of rayon velvet
Rayon was also mixed with wool and cotton to create blends that were often cheaper than either of those fabrics in their pure form, or simply to create new and exciting fashion blends.
Sports dress that will be much in evidence this winter. The material is Cobra, one of the new rayon and cotton fabrics that will be made up into sports frocks as well as gowns for tea dansants and afternoon wear. Auckland Star, 11 April 1928
The popularity of art silk prompted chemists to try to devise a fibre that could mimic wool, resulting in the development of the short-lived and unfortunately named Sniafil. The fibres properties were apparently no more impressive than its name, and it is not mentioned again after 1927.
The entire manufactured cellulose fabrics industry became increasingly important with the economic crashes in 1929: more and more people could not afford real silk, and turned to art silk as a cheaper alternative. The first fashion illustrations for rayon frocks appear in NZ papers in 1927 (and these illustrations would have come from overseas, so reflect a clear global trend).
1930s rayon crepe Japanese import robe with rayon embroidery
The drawback to rayon was its quality: it crumpled more than natural fibres, and often did not last as well. Still, 1931 home economics textbooks advised that “with proper care and laundering, rayon may give as satisfactory wear as silk”. Early rayons were so weakened by water that even slight rubbing when washing could produce holes in the fabric. This weakness in water made rayon unsuitable for military use (can you just imagine how bad a parachute that weakened when wet would be?), so rayon filled the gap for a fashion fabric left by silk (which was in high demand for parachutes, and in short supply due to trade interruptions) during World War II.
1940s rayon fabric
In addition to an increase in demand for rayon, World War II also saw huge improvements in the qualities of rayon. Early rayons were (as mentioned) weak in water, couldn’t take hot ironing, and prone to creasing in wrinkling. Research into rayon technology spurred by a need for better, cheaper, fabrics during the war helped to improve the fabric, and also produced nylon, the first fully synthetic fabric.
1940s rayon floral fabric
Rayon has been continually improved since the end of WWII, based on fashion trends and cost demands. It’s now softer, stronger, more breathable, and easier to launder and care for. It’s also going through a bit of a resurgence as a fabric, motivated in part by rising costs in cotton caused by serious droughts in major cotton producing areas. Rayon, in all its forms, is easily found in off-the-rack garments and fabric stores – at least for now.
‘Grans Garden’ reproduction 1930 dress in modern viscose
I’ve used art silk, rayon and viscose as synonyms up to this point, which is how they were used historically, but they aren’t quite synonyms today. So what is the difference between rayon and viscose?
Viscose was the trade name for the specific process developed by Charles Frederick Cross in 1894. It was used as the generic name for fabrics produced using variants of that process until 1924, when the holders of Cross’s patent petitioned in the US to have the name restricted to their process, and the actual viscous liquid, which could also be used to make cellophane. From 1924 viscose and other cellulose fabrics produced with similar processes were called by the generic name rayon, or art silk in the US, though they continued to be called viscose in Europe. Thus, modern equivalents of the fabric are called rayon in the US, and viscose in NZ/Australia/the UK today.
A smart three-piece sports ensemble of wool and rayon weave, featuring the popular jacket and set off by a large silk bandanna. Auckland Star, 25 June 1928
There was a time though, when the fabric was called rayon in New Zealand Advertisements for rayon, rather than viscose or art silk, first appear in New Zealand papers in March 1925. In the later half of the 1920s, and throughout the 1930s & 40s rayon was the most common term for manufactured cellulose fabric in New Zealand fashion articles and advertising. Only when rayon fell out of favour (replaced by the new fully synthetic fibres, like nylon) in the post war period did the name disappear. When rayon/viscose experienced a resurgence in the 1980s and new millennium, it was brought back to New Zealand under the name viscose.
Today rayon is the generic term for all of the manufactured naturals, while viscose implies a specific process and materials – so viscose is a rayon, but not all rayons are viscose. There are also:
- Acetate, acetate rayon, or cellulose is the second oldest manufactured cellulose fibre, with origins dating back to 1865, though it wasn’t until the turn of the century that a process that was commercially satisfactory was developed (interestingly enough, by the Dreyfuss brothers, who were also responsible for the first synthetic indigo dye). Acetate differs from viscose significantly in that in that acetate is hydrophobic (reacts very poorly to water and must be dry cleaned) and viscose is hydrophylic (loves water and absorbs lots of it). Acetate did poorly at first as a fashion fibre because the initial process was hard to dye (as it couldn’t be put in a dye bath) so was used primarily for industry. Acetate also reacts poorly to heat and melts easily – this does mean that it is one of the few semi-natural fibres that can be permanently pressed into pleats. Because of these drawbacks it wasn’t manufactured commercially on any great scale until at least 1924. Variants of acetate are Triacetate and Diacetate.
- Bamboo rayons (from bamboo fibres) – simply viscose or other manufactured naturals made with bamboo as their cellulose base. Bamboo can be processes into a fibre in two ways: mechanically, or using chemicals (as a rayon). The mechanical process is expensive and time and labour intensive, and results in a much stiffer, less attractive fabric. The rayon process produces a much nicer fibre, but is not particularly environmentally friendly. In some countries, such as the US, bamboo rayons must be marketed as such unless they are entirely mechanically processed. There are no such rules in New Zealand. It is possible to buy mechanically processed bamboo (it’s rather like a stiff, coarse linen), but its usually blended with other fibres to make it softer and more wearable. I’m reasonably certain that the stripes in my Subtly Striped petticoat are manufactured bamboo.
-Cuprammonium rayon is simply cellulose dissolved in a cuprammonium solution. Sold as cuprammonium, cupra, cupro, bemberg and bemberg silk, after the J.P. Bemberg company, who improved it and first produced in commercially in 1901. Cupro is usually a very light, fine, soft fabric, and is used as linings in quality suits and dresses, as it tends to last better than silk, but is nicer to feel and wear than acetate. It is apparently illegal to manufacture in the US at the present, due to the chemicals used to make it.
-I’ve been told by more than one American seamstress of my grandmothers generation that in the post WWII attempt to rebuild Japan’s economy fancy brocaded rayons were sold as ‘Kyoto silk‘. I’ve never found any marketing or research which definitively substantiates this, and Kyoto has always been famous for its gorgeous fabrics of real silk, so rebranding rayon as ‘Kyoto silk’ seems particularly unscrupulous on the part of marketers.
- Lyocell, trade named Tencel, is a relatively new rayon, only invented in the 1980s. Unlike most rayons it is strong when wet, and is highly absorbent. It can also be made to mimic a variety of other fibres and finishes, from suede to silk. It can be quite hard to dye, and has a tendency to pill, though both of these drawbacks can be overcome by additional processing. Lyocell is often marketed as the most environmentally friendly of the rayon processes, though some manufacturers use harsher chemicals to make the process faster and cheaper, as it is also the most expensive of the rayons to produce.
- Modal, is most similar to lyocell, and like lyocell is extremely soft and very absorbent. Along with lyocell it is currently being heavily marketed as a ‘green’ fabric.
Cant, Jennifer and Fritz, Anne, Consumer Textiles. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 1988
Garfield, Simon. Mauve: How One Man Invented a Colour that Changed the World. London: Faber and Faber Limited. 2000
Joyce A. Smith. Rayon – The Multi-Faceted Fiber. Ohio State University Rayon Fact Sheet
Rathbone, Lucy & Tarpley, Elizabeth, Fabrics and Dress. San Francisco: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1931
The Historical Sew Fortnightly Challenge #5 for 2014, due March 15, is Bodice.
It’s pretty simple. Make a bodice – a garment that covers the upper body. You can either abide by the strictest historical sense, and make a ‘pair o bodies’ for earlier periods, or a matching but separate upper half, in later periods, or can explore the idea of bodices in a more general sense.
I’ll leave the ‘more general sense’ interpretation of bodice up to your judgement, but will explore the more historical sense, and how the definition and style of bodices have changed over time to give context and inspiration.
The word ‘bodice’ dates back to the mid 16th century, and comes from the term ‘pair of bodies‘ (or ‘pair o bodies’). The ‘pair’ was referring to the two sides of the stiffened garment which laced together.
Extant stays (Queen Elizabeth’s effigy ‘pair o bodies’) ca. 1603
In the 16th century a bodice could refer either to the boned under-stays, or to the boned and stiffened garment that went over it. Ben Johnson conveys a sense of how the word arose in his 1601 satiric play The Poetaster, when one character complements another on their “strait-bodiced city attire” which will “stir a courtier’s blood, more than the finest loose sacks the ladies used to be put in.”
16th century uses of the word bodice predominantly refer to women’s garments, but there are occasional descriptions of fitted, stiffened up garments for men as bodices. Early usage of the term also almost always refers to a garment with separate sleeves, whether it was stays, which would have a full sleeved garment put over them, or a garment with detachable sleeves.
As the 17th century progressed a wider distinction arose between women’s outer garments for the upper body that were boned and stiffened in their own right (such as robe de cour bodices) and women’s boned and stiffened garments that were worn specifically as underwear under un-boned robed gowns (the mantua). As the fashions progressed, ‘bodice’ became used only for the garments that were boned and stiffened in their own right, and not for the undergarments – the stays, nor for soft, unboned outer-garments, whether mantua or jackets.
Bodice, German, 1660s
This distinction was still being sorted out at the end of the 17th century, as demonstrated in 1688 by Randal Holme, in his Academy of Armory describing women’s dress as consisting of:
The STAYES, which is the body of the Gown before the Sleeves are put too, or covered with the outward stuff.
He also describes:
BONING THE STAYES, is to put the slit Bone into every one of the places made for it between each stitched line which makes Stayes or Bodies sitff and strong.
COVERING the Bodies or Stayes, is the laying the outside stuff upon it…
This meant that by the 18th century a robe de cour – literally called a ‘stiff bodied gown(or stiff bodiced gown, since the words were essentially interchangeable) was a bodice, but that a soft jacket such as a caracao or pet-en-l’air, worn over a set of boned stays, would not be considered a bodice, and the term bodice almost always referred to an outer-garment, where stays would be used for an under-garment.
According to a 1733 description:
The Princess of Orange’s dress was the prettiest thing that ever was seen – a corpse de robe, that is in plain English, a stiff-bodied gown. The peers’ daughters that held up her train were in the same sort of dress – all white and silver, with great quantities of jewels in their hair and long locks’
Court Bodice, 1761, Helen Larson Historic Fashion Collection, FIDM
This distinction morphed as fashions changed at the end of the 18th century. Late 18th and early 19th century fashions were so exclusively focused on full gowns, with even court dress, though it retained the proscribed hoops and feathers in England, made as one gown, that there were few things that were described separately as bodices. There are occasional sleeveless spencers that fit the 18th century definition of a bodice, albeit one without boning, and one which would be worn over a full gown.
Bodice (sleeveless spencer), silk, ca. 1800, Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.38.48.9_F
Instead, it is in this period that bodice begins to be used as a generic term for the upper half of a women’s outfit, so that in the 1820s a fashion plates might describe a dress with an ‘Anglo-Greek Bodice’ to indicate a style made with fichu-robings for day or evening wear.
Between 1810 and 1820 ‘bodice’ made a brief return in menswear, in the form of the ‘Brummell bodice‘ – the men’s stays worn by fashionable dandies, after Beau Brummell.
By the mid-19th century, bodices were once again woman’s exclusive provenance. While the generic description of bodice as anything in the upper half of the garment was here to stay, the term did was more commonly used to refer to a separate but matching upper garment, which would be attached to the skirt with hooks when worn, creating the appearance of a one piece garment.
Ball gown bodice, 1865-66, Musees
These garments were usually boned, and can be seen as a descendent of the stiff, laced 18th century bodices. However, unlike their earlier counterparts, the new distinction between day and evening fashions allowed dresses to be made with one skirt, and two bodices: a low necked one for evening wear, and a high necked one for day wear.
Dress (evening bodice), 1860s Jessie Benton Fremont, American, MFA Boston
Dress (afternoon bodice), 1860s Jessie Benton Fremont, American, MFA Boston
Fashion magazines gave suggestions for both full ensembles, and for bodices which might be paired with any skirt design. It was possible for a skirt to have a matching bodice, and for a woman to then purchase other, separate, unmatching bodices to go with it.
A “Low Bodice for Gown” from 1889. “This pattern can be carried out either in silk, moiré, plush, velvet, brocade or satin. The sleeves and folds may be either lace, gauze Aerophane, or China crepe”
It was only with the development of the waistline-less ‘Princess Dress’, and the return of one-piece gowns worn for anything but the most informal wear, which began in the late 1870s, that the bodice began to see a decline. It lasted until the early 20th century, but with the revolution in fashion in the 1910s and 20s the bodice as a separate garment disappeared almost entirely as a fashion term. Instead, we wear dresses with bodices, or shirts and blouses. Only in the vocabularies of seamstresses (“I took the bodice from pattern A and the skirt from pattern B”), the occasional special-occasion garment with a separate bodice, and in specialised regional dress (dirndls etc.) does the bodice remain relevant.
Buck, Anne. Dress in 18th Century England, B.T. Batsford Ltd: London. 1979
Cumming, Valerie and Cunnington, C.W.; Cunnington, P.E, The Dictionary of Fashion History (Rev., updated ed.). Oxford: Berg Publishers. 2010
Hart, Avril and North, Susan. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Fashion in Detail. V&A Publishing: London. 2009
O’Hara, Georgina, The Encyclopedia of Fashion: From 1840 to the 1980s. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1986
Riberio, Aileen. Dress in Eighteenth Century Europe 1715-1789. B.T. Batsford Ltd: London. 1984.
Riberio, Aileen. Fashion in the French Revolution. B.T. Batsford Ltd: London. 1988
Mansel, Philip. Dressed to Rule: Royal and Court Costume from Louis XIV to Elizabeth II. Yale University Press: London. 2005.
Waugh, Norah. The Cut of Women’s Clothes: 1600-1930. Faber and Faber: London. 1968